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It determines the correct development of the cone of growth from the germination phase. It affects the processes of flowering, fertilization, seed formation, function and division of cells (reduces the cracking of the stems during intense growth). In addition, it raises immunity to frosts and plays an important role in reducing the occurrence of diseases (eg, less fungal diseases of potato, flax – rust). It increases the efficiency of fertilization with nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium and regulates the management of calcium.

Symptoms of B deficiency

Symptoms of boron deficiency in plants – both internally and externally – are the result of disruption of biological functions. As a result of boron deficiency occurs among others:
  • Growth inhibition and death of growth cones of both shoots and roots, decomposition of buds
  • Loss of plant capacity to produce generative parts (flowers),
  • Absence of fertilization after pollination of flowers,
  • Cracking and roughness of the bark, fruit corking (cork inclusions), fruit cracking and falling before.
  • Participates in the distribution of water molecules and oxygen secretion in photosynthesis,
  • Participates in cell wall lignification,
  • Contributes to the regulation of water cell management,
  • Contributes to the metabolism of simple sugars to starch and transport of assimilates from the cell,
  • In bean plants copper deficiency causes papillomatosis,
  • Is responsible for the correct formation and viability of pollen grains,
  • Participates in the metabolism of nitrogen compounds,
  • Contributes to the formation of papillary bacteria in legume plants.

Symptoms of Cu deficiency

  • On peat soils – copper deficiency disease – yellowing or bleaching vertices of young leaves of cereals. Leaves with time become narrow, twist and fall out. The ears do not fill with grain,
  • Plants with copper-deficient are small in size, because the growth of the internode is inhibited,
  • Fruit trees have stunted lateral shoots, also inflorescences and fruits develop incorrectly.
  • Occurs in nitrate nitrogenase, which is involved in nitrogen binding by papillary bacteria,
  • Engages in the production of pollen and is responsible for its viability,
  • Micronutrient absorbed from the soil at high pH.

Symptoms of Mo deficiency

  • In legume plants, symptoms similar to lack of nitrogen, eg chlorosis,
  • Cauliflower leaves disease – inhibition of the growth of leaf blade with excessive growth of the main nerve,
  • Oilseed rape leaves disease – disturbances in leaf growth, leading to the formation of a concave spoon, especially in autumn.
  • Participates in the distribution of water molecules and oxygen secretion in photosynthesis,
  • Takes an indirect share in the transformation, transfer and storage of energy,
  • Creates ionic bonds between the enzyme and the substrate, eg from ATP,
  • Binds free radicals in chloroplasts, thus extending cell viability,
  • Activates enzymes to the metabolism of sugars, proteins and fats,
  • Takes part in the reduction of nitrates to ammonium forms (is necessary during the fertilizing with high doses of nitrates),
  • Affects the growth of roots and shoots by participating in the synthesis of auxins,
  • Affects cell growth to length, thereby activating plant growth,
  • Like copper, it binds free radicals that arise in stressful situations and damage cells.

Symptoms of Mn deficiency

  • In soils with a pH above 6.5, interstitial chlorosis occurs which in excess is toxic to plants,
  • Oat leaves disease – gray spots of oat leaves, then inflexion and leaves drying,
  • Inhibition of growth and leaves fall, decomposition of leaves tips,
  • Chlorosis on the plantation in addition to places with low pH and compacted soil.
  • It is a component of RNA polymerase and ribosome structure,
  • It is an enzyme activator of sugar metabolism and gene expression enzymes (so called zinc fingers) and protein formation,
  • Affects the level of indole acetic acid, which regulates plant growth,
  • Functional stabilizer of protein structures,
  • By acting on the production of tryptophan, the plant hormone precursor participates in the synthesis of auxins,
  • Indirectly affects the resistance of plants to biotic and abiotic stressors,
  • The zinc antagonist component is phosphorus. With high phosphorus content, zinc absorption drops.

Symptoms of Zn deficiency 

  • Shortening of internodes of perennial plants,
  • Diminishing, Brittleness and Leaf Stiffness. Fading of older leaves,
  • Spotted chlorosis of the youngest leaves,
  • Redness of veins and leaf edges of dicotyledonous plants,
  • Streaked corn leaves chlorosis,
  • Spotted necrosis of cereal leaves,
  • Incorrect formation and development of flower buds in fruit crops.
  • The component of ferredoxin – a protein involved in the transport of electrons in the light phase of photosynthesis and in the bonding of molecular nitrogen,
  • It is a component of enzymes which dissolve toxic peroxides,
  • Takes an indirect share in the transformation, transfer and strage of energy,
  • Creates ionic bonds between the enzyme and the substrate, eg ATP,
  • Iron is more easily absorpted from the soil at low pH.


Symptoms of Fe deficiency

  • Chlorosis of younger leaves leading to albinism,
  • Leaves nerves of legumes remain green,
  • Slowed plant growth due to decreased activity of photosynthesis,
  • In extreme cases growth vertices may deca,
  • Anatomical deformation of the roots.